Resolving Cypriniformes relationships using an anchored enrichment approach

Carla C. Stout, Milton Tan, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Jonathan W. Armbruster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Cypriniformes (minnows, carps, loaches, and suckers) is the largest group of freshwater fishes in the world (~4300 described species). Despite much attention, previous attempts to elucidate relationships using molecular and morphological characters have been incongruent. In this study we present the first phylogenomic analysis using anchored hybrid enrichment for 172 taxa to represent the order (plus three out-group taxa), which is the largest dataset for the order to date (219 loci, 315,288 bp, average locus length of 1011 bp). Results: Concatenation analysis establishes a robust tree with 97 % of nodes at 100 % bootstrap support. Species tree analysis was highly congruent with the concatenation analysis with only two major differences: monophyly of Cobitoidei and placement of Danionidae. Conclusions: Most major clades obtained in prior molecular studies were validated as monophyletic, and we provide robust resolution for the relationships among these clades for the first time. These relationships can be used as a framework for addressing a variety of evolutionary questions (e.g. phylogeography, polyploidization, diversification, trait evolution, comparative genomics) for which Cypriniformes is ideally suited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number244
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Evolutionary Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 9 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Cyprinidae
  • Fish
  • High-throughput sequencing
  • Ostariophysi
  • Phylogenetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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