Resistance to 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster is extremely high compared to the susceptible Canton-S strain (>1500 times). In addition to enhanced oxidative detoxification, the 91-R strain also has a reduced rate of DDT penetration, increased levels of reductive and conjugative metabolism, and substantially more excretion than the Canton-S strain. Contact penetration of DDT was ~30% less with 91-R flies, which also had significantly more cuticular hydrocarbons and a thicker, more laminated cuticle compared to Canton-S flies, possibly resulting in penetration differences. DDT was metabolized ~1.6-fold more extensively by 91-R than Canton-S flies, resulting in dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), two unidentified metabolites and polar conjugates being formed in significantly greater amounts. 91-R flies also excreted ~4-fold more DDT and metabolites than Canton-S flies. Verapamil pretreatment reduced the LD50 value for 91-R flies topically dosed with DDT by a factor of 10-fold, indicating that the increased excretion may involve, in part, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In summary, DDT resistance in 91-R is polyfactorial and includes reduced penetration, increased detoxification and direct excretion.
- Drosophila melanogaster
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis