Resistance in the highly DDT-resistant 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster involves decreased penetration, increased metabolism, and direct excretion

Joseph P. Strycharz, Alice Lao, Hongmei Li, Xinghui Qiu, Si Hyeock Lee, Weilin Sun, Kyong Sup Yoon, Jeffery J. Doherty, Barry R. Pittendrigh, J. Marshall Clark

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Resistance to 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster is extremely high compared to the susceptible Canton-S strain (>1500 times). In addition to enhanced oxidative detoxification, the 91-R strain also has a reduced rate of DDT penetration, increased levels of reductive and conjugative metabolism, and substantially more excretion than the Canton-S strain. Contact penetration of DDT was ~30% less with 91-R flies, which also had significantly more cuticular hydrocarbons and a thicker, more laminated cuticle compared to Canton-S flies, possibly resulting in penetration differences. DDT was metabolized ~1.6-fold more extensively by 91-R than Canton-S flies, resulting in dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), two unidentified metabolites and polar conjugates being formed in significantly greater amounts. 91-R flies also excreted ~4-fold more DDT and metabolites than Canton-S flies. Verapamil pretreatment reduced the LD50 value for 91-R flies topically dosed with DDT by a factor of 10-fold, indicating that the increased excretion may involve, in part, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In summary, DDT resistance in 91-R is polyfactorial and includes reduced penetration, increased detoxification and direct excretion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-217
Number of pages11
JournalPesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Volume107
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2013

Keywords

  • DDT
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Excretion
  • Metabolism
  • Penetration
  • Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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    Strycharz, J. P., Lao, A., Li, H., Qiu, X., Lee, S. H., Sun, W., Yoon, K. S., Doherty, J. J., Pittendrigh, B. R., & Clark, J. M. (2013). Resistance in the highly DDT-resistant 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster involves decreased penetration, increased metabolism, and direct excretion. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 107(2), 207-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.06.010