Requirement for digestible calcium by eleven- to twenty-five–kilogram pigs as determined by growth performance, bone ash concentration, calcium and phosphorus balances, and expression of genes involved in transport of calcium in intestinal and kidney cells

J. C. González-Vega, Y. Liu, J. C. McCann, C. L. Walk, J. J. Loor, H. H. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to determine the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca by 11- to 25-kg pigs based on growth performance, bone ash, or Ca and P retention and to determine the effect of dietary Ca on expression of genes related to Ca transport in the jejunum and kidneys. Six diets were formulated to contain 0.36% STTD P and 0.32, 0.40, 0.48, 0.56, 0.64, or 0.72% STTD Ca by including increasing quantities of calcium carbonate in the diets at the expense of cornstarch. Two additional diets contained 0.72% STTD Ca and 0.33% or 0.40% STTD P to determine if 0.36% STTD P had negative effects on the Ca requirement. The same batch of all diets was used in both experiments. In Exp. 1, 256 pigs (11.39 ± 1.21 kg initial BW) were randomly allotted to the 8 diets with 4 pigs per pen and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig from each pen was euthanized and the right femur and intestine and kidney samples were collected. Results indicated that ADG and G:F started to decline (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) at 0.54 and 0.50% STTD Ca, respectively. In contrast, bone ash increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as dietary Ca increased and reached a plateau indicating that the requirement for STTD Ca to maximize bone ash was 0.48%. Bone ash, but not ADG or G:F, increased (linear, P < 0.01) as STTD P increased in the diets. The mRNA expression of genes related to transcellular Ca transport decreased (linear, P < 0.01) in the jejunum and in kidneys (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) as dietary Ca increased. In Exp. 2, 80 pigs (13.12 ± 1.79 kg initial BW) were placed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to the 8 diets with 10 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Fecal and urine samples were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that the requirement for STTD Ca to maximize Ca and P retention (g/d) was 0.60 and 0.49%, respectively. In conclusion, the STTD Ca requirement by 11- to 25-kg pigs to maximize bone ash was 0.48%; however, ADG and G:F declined if more than 0.54 or 0.50% STTD Ca, respectively, was fed, and the minimum concentration of Ca needed to maximize ADG and G:F could not be determined under the conditions of this experiment. Increasing dietary Ca decreased the mRNA expression of several genes related to transcellular Ca transport in the jejunum and the kidneys.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3321-3334
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume94
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2016

Keywords

  • Bone ash
  • Calcium balance
  • Calcium requirement
  • Calcium retention
  • Digestible calcium
  • Pigs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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