Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances

J. C. González-Vega, C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, H. H. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to determine the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different concentrations of STTD P. Twenty cornsoybean meal based diets were formulated with diets containing 4 concentrations of STTD P (0.15, 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47%) and 5 concentrations of STTD Ca (0.13, 0.27, 0.42, 0.57, or 0.72%). Diets were mixed in 1 batch and were used in both experiments. In Exp. 1, 240 pigs (initial average BW: 24.70 ± 1.27 kg) were randomly allotted to the 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pen per diet in each block using a 4 × 5 factorial design. There was 1 gilt and 1 barrow in each pen. At the conclusion of the 28 d experiment, all barrows were euthanized and the right femur was collected. Results indicated that there were interactions (P < 0.001) between concentration of STTD Ca and concentration of STTD P in diets for ADG, G:F, and bone ash. The predicted maximum ADG at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 0.76, 0.87, 0.90, and 0.92 kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.12, 0.36, 0.47, and 0.59%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.80:1, 1.16:1, 1.21:1, and 1.26:1. The predicted maximum G:F ratio at the 4 STTD P concentrations were 0.43, 0.46, 0.48, and 0.50 kg/kg at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.09, 0.38, 0.52, and 0.67%, respectively, and these values correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 0.60:1, 1.23:1, 1.33:1, and 1.43:1. The predicted maximum bone ash at the 4 STTD P concentrations were 14.5, 21.0, 23.1, and 24.5 g at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.41, 0.56, 0.64, and 0.72%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 2.73:1, 1.81:1, 1.64:1, and 1.53:1. In Exp. 2, 120 pigs (initial average BW: 29.45 ± 2.15 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to the 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pig per diet in each block. Fecal and urine samples were collected. Results indicated that the predicted maximum retention of Ca in the body at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 4.7, 7.1, 8.6, and 10.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.77, 0.96, 1.06, and 1.15%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 5.13:1, 3.10:1, 2.72:1, and 2.45:1. These observations indicate that if STTD P meets or exceeds the requirement, the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize ADG and G:F by 25 to 50 kg pigs is between 1.16:1 and 1.43:1. However, a greater ratio may be needed to maximize bone ash or Ca retention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5272-5285
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume94
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2016

Keywords

  • Bone ash
  • Calcium
  • Digestible calcium
  • Growth performance
  • Pigs
  • Requirements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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