This chapter describes the biomarkers used to monitor changes in reproduction in both males and females. This chapter also describes how these biomarkers are used to measure the effects of toxicants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the reproductive system. Specifically, in males, biomarkers are used to measure changes in spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, puberty, and reproductive aging. In females, biomarkers are used to measure changes in folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, puberty, the uterus, the placenta, and reproductive aging. Furthermore, this chapter describes biomarkers used in both human and animal studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationBiomarkers in Toxicology
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9780128146552
ISBN (Print)9780128146569
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Aging
  • Biomarkers
  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  • Folliculogenesis
  • Placenta
  • Puberty
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Steroidogenesis
  • Uterus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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