Biohydrogen is a clean and renewable source of energy. It can be produced by using technologies such as thermochemical, electrolysis, photoelectrochemical and biological, etc. Among these technologies, the biological method (dark fermentation) is considered more sustainable and ecofriendly. Dark fermentation involves anaerobic microbes which degrade carbohydrate rich substrate and produce hydrogen. Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundantly available raw material and can be utilized as an economic and renewable substrate for biohydrogen production. Although there are many hurdles, continuous advancements in lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment technology, microbial fermentation (mixed substrate and co-culture fermentation), the involvement of molecular biology techniques, and understanding of various factors (pH, T, addition of nanomaterials) effect on biohydrogen productivity and yield render this technology efficient and capable to meet future energy demands. Further integration of biohydrogen production technology with other products such as bio-alcohol, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and methane have the potential to improve the efficiency and economics of the overall process. In this article, various methods used for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment, technologies in trends to produce and improve biohydrogen production, a coproduction of other energy resources, and techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass are reviewed.
- Lignocellulosic biomass
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal