Relationships within the spiny-fruited umbellifers (Scandiceae subtribes Daucinae and Torilidinae) as assessed by phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters

Byoung Yoon Lee, Geoffrey A. Levin, Stephen R Downie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Previous molecular systematic studies have indicated that the spiny-fruited umbellifers (Apiaceae tribe Caucalideae sensu Heywood) comprise two major lineages, recently delimited as Scandiceae subtribes Daucinae and Torilidinae, with the former including representation of tribe Laserpitieae sensu Drude. These taxa are allied with the monophyletic Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae whose members lack spiny fruits. The relationship among these three subtribes is equivocal when nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences are compared. Evidence from plastid DNA, however, suggests that Daucinae and Torilidinae are sister taxa. Herein, we provide results of a phylogenetic study of these spiny-fruited umbellifers based on morphology in order to study the evolution of these characters and to ascertain their utility for resolving relationships by comparison to the results of previous molecular analyses. Maximum parsimony analysis of 56 morphological characters resulted in a paraphyletic Torilidinae (Astrodaucus, Caucalls, Glochidotheca, Lisaea, Szovitsia, Torilis, Turgenia, and Yabea) from which a monophyletic Daucinae (Agrocharis, Ammodaucus, Cuminum, Daucus, Laserpitium, Orlaya, Pachyctenium, and Pseudorlaya) are derived. Scandicinae are maintained as monophyletic, sister to Daucinae plus Torilidinae. The genus Artedia, previously attributable to either Daucinae or Torilidinae, shows affinity with the former. The Daucinae plus Torilidinae clade is supported by three fruit synapomorphies - the regular distribution of appendages on both primary and secondary ridges, the presence of primary ridges and hairs on the face of the commissure, and the presence of vittae under the lateral ridges - but each subtribe cannot be circumscribed unambiguously on the basis of morphological data. Characters of the primary appendages exhibit less homoplasy than those of the secondary fruit appendages and support many clades identified in the molecular analyses. Parsimony analysis of combined morphological and ITS data, however, reaffirms the monophyly of subtribe Torilidinae and provides greater resolution of relationships within each of the subtribes than do either of the separate analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)622-642
Number of pages21
JournalSystematic Botany
Volume26
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 10 2001

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appendages
Fruit
parsimony analysis
fruit
phylogenetics
Agrocharis
Artedia
Pseudorlaya
Orlaya
Turgenia
Astrodaucus
Cuminum
fruits
phylogeny
Torilis
Laserpitium
Daucus
Apiaceae
DNA
Plastids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Relationships within the spiny-fruited umbellifers (Scandiceae subtribes Daucinae and Torilidinae) as assessed by phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. / Lee, Byoung Yoon; Levin, Geoffrey A.; Downie, Stephen R.

In: Systematic Botany, Vol. 26, No. 3, 10.10.2001, p. 622-642.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Previous molecular systematic studies have indicated that the spiny-fruited umbellifers (Apiaceae tribe Caucalideae sensu Heywood) comprise two major lineages, recently delimited as Scandiceae subtribes Daucinae and Torilidinae, with the former including representation of tribe Laserpitieae sensu Drude. These taxa are allied with the monophyletic Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae whose members lack spiny fruits. The relationship among these three subtribes is equivocal when nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences are compared. Evidence from plastid DNA, however, suggests that Daucinae and Torilidinae are sister taxa. Herein, we provide results of a phylogenetic study of these spiny-fruited umbellifers based on morphology in order to study the evolution of these characters and to ascertain their utility for resolving relationships by comparison to the results of previous molecular analyses. Maximum parsimony analysis of 56 morphological characters resulted in a paraphyletic Torilidinae (Astrodaucus, Caucalls, Glochidotheca, Lisaea, Szovitsia, Torilis, Turgenia, and Yabea) from which a monophyletic Daucinae (Agrocharis, Ammodaucus, Cuminum, Daucus, Laserpitium, Orlaya, Pachyctenium, and Pseudorlaya) are derived. Scandicinae are maintained as monophyletic, sister to Daucinae plus Torilidinae. The genus Artedia, previously attributable to either Daucinae or Torilidinae, shows affinity with the former. The Daucinae plus Torilidinae clade is supported by three fruit synapomorphies - the regular distribution of appendages on both primary and secondary ridges, the presence of primary ridges and hairs on the face of the commissure, and the presence of vittae under the lateral ridges - but each subtribe cannot be circumscribed unambiguously on the basis of morphological data. Characters of the primary appendages exhibit less homoplasy than those of the secondary fruit appendages and support many clades identified in the molecular analyses. Parsimony analysis of combined morphological and ITS data, however, reaffirms the monophyly of subtribe Torilidinae and provides greater resolution of relationships within each of the subtribes than do either of the separate analyses.",
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