Youth relationships with important nonparental adults (INAs) influence adolescent development. However, prior studies have not simultaneously examined the quantity and quality of INA relationships in predicting youth outcomes, nor have prior studies considered mediators of these constructs. In a sample of tenth through twelfth graders, we modeled the relationships among quantity and quality of INA relationships, intentional self-regulation, hopeful future expectations, and the Five Cs of positive youth development. Hopeful future expectations mediated relations between quantity and youth confidence, character, and caring and between emotional closeness and youth confidence. Finally, youth intentional self-regulation predicted changes in character.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology