Relations between mode of birth delivery and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence

A retrospective study

Morgan R. Chojnacki, Hannah Diane Holscher, Alaina R. Balbinot, Lauren B. Raine, John R. Biggan, Anne M. Walk, Arthur F. Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Charles H. Hillman, Naiman A Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Cesarean delivery (CS) is an increasingly common mode of delivery comprising over 30% of all deliveries in the U.S. The long-term impact of this delivery mode on child development remains unclear. Aims: We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery (vaginal vs. CS) and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence, as well as additional milestones beyond motor/language development including toilet training, dressing, and feeding self. Study design: This study utilized a retrospective survey given to a parent/guardian and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in preadolescence, respectively. A composite z-score was calculated based on nine questions pertaining to developmental milestones i.e., parent-reported age for supporting head by self, rolling over, sitting up, standing, walking, talking, toilet-training, dressing, and feeding self. Subjects: 7–10-year-old (N = 104) children in East-Central Illinois. Outcome measures: Composite z-score for timing of attainment of developmental milestones, mode of delivery, and preadolescent adiposity. Results: Vaginally-born children had a lower composite z-score, signifying earlier attainment of developmental milestones, relative to both emergency and planned CS-born children. Further, elective CS-born children had greater adiposity in preadolescence, relative to vaginal and emergency cesarean-section born children. Conclusions: These findings suggest relationships between delivery mode, developmental milestones, and obesity in preadolescence. Additionally, they provide novel insights into the differential impact of elective versus emergency CS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-59
Number of pages8
JournalEarly Human Development
Volume129
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Fingerprint

Adiposity
Retrospective Studies
Parturition
Toilet Training
Emergencies
Bandages
Language Development
Child Development
Cesarean Section
Walking
Obesity
Head
X-Rays
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Keywords

  • Birth method
  • Cesarean section
  • Developmental milestones
  • Gross motor development
  • Language development
  • Mode of delivery
  • Vaginal delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Relations between mode of birth delivery and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence : A retrospective study. / Chojnacki, Morgan R.; Holscher, Hannah Diane; Balbinot, Alaina R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Biggan, John R.; Walk, Anne M.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Cohen, Neal J; Hillman, Charles H.; Khan, Naiman A.

In: Early Human Development, Vol. 129, 01.02.2019, p. 52-59.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chojnacki, Morgan R. ; Holscher, Hannah Diane ; Balbinot, Alaina R. ; Raine, Lauren B. ; Biggan, John R. ; Walk, Anne M. ; Kramer, Arthur F. ; Cohen, Neal J ; Hillman, Charles H. ; Khan, Naiman A. / Relations between mode of birth delivery and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence : A retrospective study. In: Early Human Development. 2019 ; Vol. 129. pp. 52-59.
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T1 - Relations between mode of birth delivery and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence

T2 - A retrospective study

AU - Chojnacki, Morgan R.

AU - Holscher, Hannah Diane

AU - Balbinot, Alaina R.

AU - Raine, Lauren B.

AU - Biggan, John R.

AU - Walk, Anne M.

AU - Kramer, Arthur F.

AU - Cohen, Neal J

AU - Hillman, Charles H.

AU - Khan, Naiman A

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - Background: Cesarean delivery (CS) is an increasingly common mode of delivery comprising over 30% of all deliveries in the U.S. The long-term impact of this delivery mode on child development remains unclear. Aims: We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery (vaginal vs. CS) and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence, as well as additional milestones beyond motor/language development including toilet training, dressing, and feeding self. Study design: This study utilized a retrospective survey given to a parent/guardian and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in preadolescence, respectively. A composite z-score was calculated based on nine questions pertaining to developmental milestones i.e., parent-reported age for supporting head by self, rolling over, sitting up, standing, walking, talking, toilet-training, dressing, and feeding self. Subjects: 7–10-year-old (N = 104) children in East-Central Illinois. Outcome measures: Composite z-score for timing of attainment of developmental milestones, mode of delivery, and preadolescent adiposity. Results: Vaginally-born children had a lower composite z-score, signifying earlier attainment of developmental milestones, relative to both emergency and planned CS-born children. Further, elective CS-born children had greater adiposity in preadolescence, relative to vaginal and emergency cesarean-section born children. Conclusions: These findings suggest relationships between delivery mode, developmental milestones, and obesity in preadolescence. Additionally, they provide novel insights into the differential impact of elective versus emergency CS.

AB - Background: Cesarean delivery (CS) is an increasingly common mode of delivery comprising over 30% of all deliveries in the U.S. The long-term impact of this delivery mode on child development remains unclear. Aims: We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery (vaginal vs. CS) and timing of developmental milestones and adiposity in preadolescence, as well as additional milestones beyond motor/language development including toilet training, dressing, and feeding self. Study design: This study utilized a retrospective survey given to a parent/guardian and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in preadolescence, respectively. A composite z-score was calculated based on nine questions pertaining to developmental milestones i.e., parent-reported age for supporting head by self, rolling over, sitting up, standing, walking, talking, toilet-training, dressing, and feeding self. Subjects: 7–10-year-old (N = 104) children in East-Central Illinois. Outcome measures: Composite z-score for timing of attainment of developmental milestones, mode of delivery, and preadolescent adiposity. Results: Vaginally-born children had a lower composite z-score, signifying earlier attainment of developmental milestones, relative to both emergency and planned CS-born children. Further, elective CS-born children had greater adiposity in preadolescence, relative to vaginal and emergency cesarean-section born children. Conclusions: These findings suggest relationships between delivery mode, developmental milestones, and obesity in preadolescence. Additionally, they provide novel insights into the differential impact of elective versus emergency CS.

KW - Birth method

KW - Cesarean section

KW - Developmental milestones

KW - Gross motor development

KW - Language development

KW - Mode of delivery

KW - Vaginal delivery

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JO - Early Human Development

JF - Early Human Development

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