Regular simplex fingerprints and their optimality properties

Negar Kiyavash, Pierre Moulin, Ton Kalker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper addresses the design of additive fingerprints that are maximally resilient against linear collusion attacks on a focused correlation detector, as defined below. Let N be the length of the host vector and M ≤ N+1 the number of users. The focused detector performs a correlation test in order to decide whether a user of interest is among the colluders. Both the fingerprint embedder and the colluders are subject to squared-error distortion constraints. We show that simplex fingerprints maximize a geometric figure of merit for this detector. In that sense they outperform orthogonal fingerprints but the advantage vanishes as M →. They are also optimal in terms of minimizing the probability of error of the focused detector when the attack is a uniform averaging of the marked copies followed by the addition of white Gaussian noise. Reliable detection is guaranteed provided that the number of colluders K\ll N. Moreover, we study the probability of error performance of simplex fingerprints for the focused correlation detector when the colluders use nonuniform averaging plus white Gaussian noise attacks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5153285
Pages (from-to)318-329
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2009


  • Collusion attacks
  • Fingerprinting
  • Signal detection
  • Simplex codes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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