Redox-electrolytes for non-flow electrochemical energy storage: A critical review and best practice

Juhan Lee, Pattarachai Srimuk, Simon Fleischmann, Xiao Su, T. Alan Hatton, Volker Presser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Over recent decades, a new type of electric energy storage system has emerged with the principle that the electric charge can be stored not only at the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte but also in the bulk electrolyte by redox activities of the electrolyte itself. Those redox electrolytes are promising for non-flow hybrid energy storage systems, or redox electrolyte-aided hybrid energy storage (REHES) systems; particularly, when they are combined with highly porous carbon electrodes. In this review paper, critical design considerations for the REHES systems are discussed as well as the effective electrochemical characterization techniques. Appropriate evaluation of the electrochemical performance is discussed thoroughly, including advanced analytical techniques for the determination of the electrochemical stability of the redox electrolytes and self-discharge rate. Additionally, critical summary tables for the recent progress on REHES systems are provided. Furthermore, the unique synergistic combination of porous carbon materials and redox electrolytes is introduced in terms of the diffusion, adsorption, and electrochemical kinetics modulating energy storage in REHES systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-89
Number of pages44
JournalProgress in Materials Science
StatePublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Batteries
  • Electrochemical energy storage
  • Hybrid energy storage
  • Redox electrolyte
  • Supercapacitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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