Taking a different approach than that presented by Lawson in the first section of the book, this chapter serves to provide a second perspective on the redesign of physical education in the United States. Drawing upon research using occupational socialization theory as a framework, a critical approach is taken whereby characteristics of suboptimal learning environments for students and suboptimal working conditions for physical educators are identified and discussed. These suboptimal conditions are collectively used to describe challenges associated with the status quo of physical education in the United States. The redesign initiatives discussed adopt a reformist approach through which strategies for creating better learning environments and working conditions are presented and described. Suggestions for improving student learning conditions generally relate to the infusion of student-centered pedagogies in line with self-determination theory, and those suggestions for improving working conditions highlight ways in which teachers can combat marginalization and isolation. The chapter concludes with a discussion of systems-level changes required to realize a meaningful redesign agenda for physical education in the United States, including the role of key stakeholders (e.g., teachers, teacher educators, professional organizations, policymakers) in the process.