Recommendations for real-time speech MRI

Sajan Goud Lingala, Brad P. Sutton, Marc E. Miquel, Krishna S. Nayak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-44
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • rapid imaging
  • real time MRI
  • recommendations
  • speech imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Recommendations for real-time speech MRI'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this