Receptor for advanced glycation end-products: Biological significance and imaging applications

Iwona T. Dobrucki, Angelo Miskalis, Michael Nelappana, Catherine Applegate, Marcin Wozniak, Andrzej Czerwinski, Leszek Kalinowski, Lawrence W. Dobrucki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE or AGER) is a transmembrane, immunoglobulin-like receptor that, due to its multiple isoform structures, binds to a diverse range of endo- and exogenous ligands. RAGE activation caused by the ligand binding initiates a cascade of complex pathways associated with producing free radicals, such as reactive nitric oxide and oxygen species, cell proliferation, and immunoinflammatory processes. The involvement of RAGE in the pathogenesis of disorders such as diabetes, inflammation, tumor progression, and endothelial dysfunction is dictated by the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) at pathologic states leading to sustained RAGE upregulation. The involvement of RAGE and its ligands in numerous pathologies and diseases makes RAGE an interesting target for therapy focused on the modulation of both RAGE expression or activation and the production or exogenous administration of AGEs. Despite the known role that the RAGE/AGE axis plays in multiple disease states, there remains an urgent need to develop noninvasive, molecular imaging approaches that can accurately quantify RAGE levels in vivo that will aid in the validation of RAGE and its ligands as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1935
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • AGE
  • AGER
  • PET
  • RAGE
  • fluorescence
  • molecular imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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