Recent Progress on 1.55-μm dilute-nitride lasers

Seth R. Bank, Hopil Bae, Lynford L. Goddard, Homan B. Yuen, Mark A. Wistey, Robert Kudrawiec, James S. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


We review the recent developments in GaAs-based 1.55-μm lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). While materials growth is challenging, the growth window appears to be relatively broad and is described in detail. The key considerations for producing high-quality GaInNAsSb material emitting at 1.55-μm regime are examined, including the nitrogen plasma conditions, ion removal from the nitrogen flux, surfactantmediated growth, the roles of various V-III ratios, the growth temperature, the active region thermal budget, proper annealing, and composition. We find that emission may be tuned throughout the 1.55-μm communications band without penalty to the optical quality varying only one parameter-the total growth rate. This powerful result is validated by the demonstration of low-threshold edge-emitting lasers throughout the 1.55-μm regime, including threshold current densities as low as 318 A/cm 2 at 1.54 μm. Additional characterization by Z-parameter techniques, cavity length studies, and band offset measurements were performed to better understand the temperature stability of device performance. Lasing was extended as far as 1.63 μm under nonoptimized growth conditions. The GaAs-based dilute-nitrides are emerging as a very promising alternative to InP-based materials at 1.55-μm due to their high gain, greater range of achievable band offsets, as well as the availability of lattice-matched AlAs-GaAs materials and native oxide layers for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Indeed, this effort has enabled the first electrically injected C-band VCSEL on GaAs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)773-785
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • 1.55 μm
  • Annealing
  • Auger recombination
  • Continuous wave (cw)
  • Dilute nitride
  • Gainnas
  • Gainnassb
  • Gallium arsenide
  • Ganas, ingaasn
  • Intervalence band absorption
  • Molecular beam epitaxy (mbe)
  • Optical communications
  • Semiconductor laser

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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