Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research

M. Ono, M. G. Bell, R. Kaita, H. W. Kugel, J. W. Ahn, J. P. Allain, D. Battaglia, R. E. Bell, J. M. Canik, S. Ding, S. Gerhardt, T. K. Gray, W. Guttenfelder, J. Hosea, M. A. Jaworski, J. Kallman, S. Kaye, B. P. Leblanc, R. Maingi, D. K. Mansfield & 18 others A. McLean, J. Menard, D. Muller, B. Nelson, R. Nygren, S. Paul, R. Raman, Y. Ren, P. Ryan, S. Sabbagh, F. Scotti, C. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, V. Surla, C. N. Taylor, J. Timberlake, H. Y. Yuh, L. E. Zakharov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last six years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a dual lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼160 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between re-loadings. The unique feature of the NSTX lithium research program is that it can investigate the effects of lithium coated plasma-facing components in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system has produced many intriguing and potentially important results. In 2010, the NSTX lithium program has focused on the effects of liquid lithium divertor (LLD) surfaces including the divertor heat load, deuterium pumping, impurity control, electron thermal confinement, H-mode pedestal physics, and enhanced plasma performance. To fill the LLD with lithium, 1300 g of lithium was evaporated into the NSTX vacuum vessel during the 2010 operations. The routine use of lithium in 2010 has significantly improved the plasma shot availability resulting in a record number of plasma shots in any given year. In this paper, as a follow-on paper from the 1st lithium symposium [1], we review the recent progress toward developing fundamental understanding of the NSTX lithium experimental observations as well as the opportunities and associated R&D required for use of lithium in future magnetic fusion facilities including ITER.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1770-1776
Number of pages7
JournalFusion Engineering and Design
Volume87
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Lithium
Experiments
Common Bile Duct Diseases
Plasmas
Callosities
Evaporation
Fusion reactions
Liquids
Fecal Impaction
Caprylates
Birth Certificates
Plasma confinement
Facings
Coating techniques
Deuterium
Thermal load
Physics
Availability
Vacuum
Impurities

Keywords

  • International lithium symposium
  • Lithium
  • Plasma-wall interactions
  • Tokamaks and spherical tokamaks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Ono, M., Bell, M. G., Kaita, R., Kugel, H. W., Ahn, J. W., Allain, J. P., ... Zakharov, L. E. (2012). Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research. Fusion Engineering and Design, 87(10), 1770-1776. DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2011.10.011

Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research. / Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Ahn, J. W.; Allain, J. P.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hosea, J.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; McLean, A.; Menard, J.; Muller, D.; Nelson, B.; Nygren, R.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Surla, V.; Taylor, C. N.; Timberlake, J.; Yuh, H. Y.; Zakharov, L. E.

In: Fusion Engineering and Design, Vol. 87, No. 10, 10.2012, p. 1770-1776.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ono, M, Bell, MG, Kaita, R, Kugel, HW, Ahn, JW, Allain, JP, Battaglia, D, Bell, RE, Canik, JM, Ding, S, Gerhardt, S, Gray, TK, Guttenfelder, W, Hosea, J, Jaworski, MA, Kallman, J, Kaye, S, Leblanc, BP, Maingi, R, Mansfield, DK, McLean, A, Menard, J, Muller, D, Nelson, B, Nygren, R, Paul, S, Raman, R, Ren, Y, Ryan, P, Sabbagh, S, Scotti, F, Skinner, C, Soukhanovskii, V, Surla, V, Taylor, CN, Timberlake, J, Yuh, HY & Zakharov, LE 2012, 'Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research' Fusion Engineering and Design, vol 87, no. 10, pp. 1770-1776. DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2011.10.011

Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Ahn, J. W.; Allain, J. P.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, R. E.; Canik, J. M.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.; Gray, T. K.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hosea, J.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; McLean, A.; Menard, J.; Muller, D.; Nelson, B.; Nygren, R.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Surla, V.; Taylor, C. N.; Timberlake, J.; Yuh, H. Y.; Zakharov, L. E. / Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research.

In: Fusion Engineering and Design, Vol. 87, No. 10, 10.2012, p. 1770-1776.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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