Real time scheduling theory: A historical perspective

Lui Sha, Tarek Abdelzaher, Karl Erik Årzén, Anton Cervin, Theodore Baker, Alan Burns, Giorgio Buttazzo, Marco Caccamo, John Lehoczky, Aloysius K. Mok

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


In this 25th year anniversary paper for the IEEE Real Time Systems Symposium, we review the key results in real-time scheduling theory and the historical events that led to the establishment of the current real-time computing infrastructure. We conclude this paper by looking at the challenges ahead of us.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-155
Number of pages55
JournalReal-Time Systems
Issue number2-3 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - Nov 1 2004



  • Dynamic-priority scheduling
  • Earliest dead-line first
  • Feedback
  • Fixed-priority scheduling
  • Hard real-time
  • New challenges
  • Rate-monotonic scheduling
  • Scheduling models
  • Soft real-time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Sha, L., Abdelzaher, T., Årzén, K. E., Cervin, A., Baker, T., Burns, A., Buttazzo, G., Caccamo, M., Lehoczky, J., & Mok, A. K. (2004). Real time scheduling theory: A historical perspective. Real-Time Systems, 28(2-3 SPEC. ISS.), 101-155.