Achieving desired density is crucial for thin asphalt concrete (AC) overlay construction quality control and quality assurance purposes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be implemented for AC pavement layer thickness and density prediction during compaction. However, the overlapping of GPR reflections from surface and bottom of the thin AC overlay, as well as the presence of surface moisture, jeopardizes the prediction accuracy. In this study, a pavement model with thin AC overlay was simulated using gprMax, a finite-difference time-domain-based tool. Surface moisture was simulated as a 2-mm film with mixed electrical properties of water and AC. A nonlinear optimization method was used to address the overlapping and surface moisture issues simultaneously. The error of the thin AC overlay dielectric constant and thickness prediction results was less than 7% and 10%, respectively. Field test during thin overlay compaction was also performed to validate the proposed method. The AC overlay thickness and density estimation accuracies were 91% and 99%, respectively.
- Density and thickness prediction
- Finite-difference time-domain
- Ground penetrating radar
- Nonlinear optimization
- Thin asphalt concrete overlay
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology