Reaction pathways and Sb(III) minerals formation during the reduction of Sb(V) by Rhodoferax ferrireducens strain YZ-1

Yidan Zhang, Maxim I. Boyanov, Edward J. O'Loughlin, Kenneth M. Kemner, Robert A. Sanford, Han Suk Kim, Soo Chan Park, Man Jae Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Antimony (Sb), a non-essential metalloid, can be released into the environment through various industrial activities. Sb(III) is considered more toxic than Sb(V), but Sb(III) can be immobilized through the precipitation of insoluble Sb2S3 or Sb2O3. In the subsurface, Sb redox chemistry is largely controlled by microorganisms; however, the exact mechanisms of Sb(V) reduction to Sb(III) are still unclear. In this study, a new strain of Sb(V)-reducing bacterium, designated as strain YZ-1, that can respire Sb(V) as a terminal electron acceptor was isolated from Sb-contaminated soils. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing of YZ-1 revealed high similarity to a known Fe(III)-reducer, Rhodoferax ferrireducens. XRD and XAFS analyses revealed that bioreduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) proceed through a transition from amorphous valentinite to crystalline senarmontite (allotropes of Sb2O3). Genomic DNA sequencing found that YZ-1 possesses arsenic (As) metabolism genes, including As(V) reductase arsC. The qPCR analysis showed that arsC was highly expressed during Sb(V)-reduction by YZ-1, and thus is proposed as the potential Sb(V) reductase in YZ-1. This study provides new insight into the pathways and products of microbial Sb(V) reduction and demonstrates the potential of a newly isolated bacterium for Sb bioremediation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number133240
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - Mar 5 2024


  • Antimony(V) reductase
  • Arsenic(V) reductase
  • Biomineralization
  • Microbial antimony(V) reduction
  • Valentinite and senarmontite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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