Quark-lepton interchangeability at high energy: [SU(3)]4 quartification

K. S. Babu, Ernest Ma, S. Willenbrock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We propose that quarks and leptons are interchangeable entities in the high-energy limit. This naturally results in the extension of [SU(3)] 3 trinification to [SU(3)]4 quartification. In addition to the unbroken color SU(3)q of quarks, there is now also a color SU(3); of leptons which reduces to an unbroken SU(2)l. We discuss the natural occurrence of SU(2)l doublets at the TeV energy scale, which leads remarkably to the unification of all gauge couplings without supersymmetry. Proton decay occurs through the exchange of scalar bosons, with a lifetime in the range 1034-1036 yr.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number051301
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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