Quantitative assessment of left ventricular volume and function by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, ultrasound velocity dilution, and gated magnetic resonance imaging in healthy foals

Ryan C. Fries, Stuart C. Clark-Price, Saki Kadotani, Jonathan P. Stack, David J. Schaeffer, Kara M. Lascola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare measurements of left ventricular volume and function derived from 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (2DE), transesophageal echo-cardiography (TEE), and the ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output method (UDCO) with those derived from cardiac MRI (cMRI) in healthy neonatal foals. ANIMALS 6 healthy 1-week-old Standardbred foals. PROCEDURES Foals were anesthetized and underwent 2DE, TEE, and cMRI; UDCO was performed simultaneously with 2DE. Images acquired by 2DE included the right parasternal 4-chamber (R4CH), left apical 4-and 2-chamber (biplane), and right parasternal short-axis M-mode (M-mode) views. The longitudinal 4-chamber view was obtained by TEE. Measurements assessed included left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction, stroke volume (LVSV), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI). Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare measurements derived from biplane, R4CH, and M-mode images and UDCO with cMRI-derived measurements. Repeatability of measurements calculated by 3 in-dependent reviewers was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS Compared with cMRI, all 2DE and TEE modalities underestimated LVEDV and LVESV and overestimated ejection fraction, CO, and CI. The LVSV was underestimated by the biplane, R4CH, and TEE modalities and overestimated by UDCO and M-mode methods. However, the R4CH-derived LVSV, CO, and CI were clinically comparable to cMRI-derived measures. Repeatability was good to excellent for measures derived from the biplane, R4CH, M-mode, UDCO, and cMRI methods and poor for TEE-derived measures. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All assessed modalities yielded clinically acceptable measurements of LVEDV, LVESV, and function, but those measurements should not be used interchangeably when monitoring patient progress. (Am J Vet Res 2020;81:930–939).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)930-939
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of veterinary research
Volume81
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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