Quantifying entanglement in cluster states built with error-prone interactions

Zhangjie Qin, Woo Ram Lee, Brian Demarco, Bryce Gadway, Svetlana Kotochigova, V. W. Scarola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Measurement-based quantum computing is an alternative paradigm to the circuit-based model. This approach can be advantageous in certain scenarios, such as when read-out is fast and accurate, but two-qubit gates realized via inter-particle interactions are slow and can be parallelized to efficiently create a cluster state. However, understanding how two-qubit errors impact algorithm accuracy and developing experimentally viable approaches to characterize cluster-state fidelity are outstanding challenges. Here, we consider one-dimensional cluster states built from controlled phase, Ising, and XY interactions with slow two-qubit error in the interaction strength, consistent with error models of interactions found in a variety of qubit architectures. We detail an experimentally viable teleportation fidelity that offers a measure of the impact of these errors on the cluster state. Our fidelity calculations show that the error has a distinctly different impact depending on the underlying interaction used for the two-qubit entangling gate. In particular, the Ising and XY interactions can allow perfect teleportation through the cluster state even with large errors, but the controlled phase interaction does not. Nonetheless, we find that teleportation through cluster state chains of size N has a maximum two-qubit error for teleportation along a quantum channel that decreases as N-1/2. To enable the construction of larger cluster states, we design lowest-order refocusing pulses for correcting these slow errors in the interaction strength. Our work generalizes to higher-dimensional cluster states and sets the stage for experiments to monitor the growth of entanglement in cluster states built from error-prone interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number043118
JournalPhysical Review Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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