Increasing evidence shows that mechanical stresses are critical in regulating cell functions, fate, and diseases. However, no methods exist that can quantify isotropic compressive stresses. Here we describe fluorescent nanoparticle-labeled, monodisperse elastic microspheres made of Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated alginate hydrogels (elastic round microgels, ERMGs). We generate 3D displacements and calculate strains and tractions exerted on an ERMG. Average compressive tractions on an ERMG are 570 Pa within cell layers and 360 Pa in tumor-repopulating cell (TRC) colonies grown in 400-Pa matrices. 3D compressive tractions on a 1.4-kPa ERMG are applied by surrounding cells via endogenous actomyosin forces but not via mature focal adhesions. Compressive stresses are substantially heterogeneous on ERMGs within a uniform cell colony and do not increase with TRC colony sizes. Early-stage zebrafish embryos generate spatial and temporal differences in local normal and shear stresses. This ERMG method could be useful for quantifying stresses in vitro and in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)