Geoffrey A. Levin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Trees or shrubs, with simple trichomes. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged but often appearing distichous, simple, petiolate, pinnately veined, base usually oblique, margins entire or dentate, the teeth sometimes spinose; stipules deciduous or persistent. Flowers in axillary or cauliflorous clusters, sometimes solitary, pedicellate, actinomorphic, generally unisexual and the plants dioecious, but occasionally polygamo-dioecious or monoecious; sepals (3)4–5(6), distinct, imbricate or the pistillate rarely open in bud; petals 0. Staminate flowers: stamens (2)3–20(−50), filaments distinct, anthers erect, dithecal, introrsely or less frequently latrorsely or extrorsely dehiscent by longitudinal slits; disk intrastaminal or absent; pistillode small or absent. Pistillate flowers: sepals deciduous or persistent; disk annular or absent; ovary superior, syncarpous, 1–3(−6)-locular, placentation axile; ovules 2 per locule, anatropus, bitegmic, embedded in a massive obturator; stylodia as many as the locules, usually short, stigmas subpeltate, reniform, discoid, bilobed, or petaloid; fruit drupaceous; seeds 1 per locule or fruit by abortion, albuminous, embryo large, straight.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationFlowering Plants. Eudicots
Subtitle of host publicationMalpighiales
EditorsKlaus Kubitzki
ISBN (Print)978-3-642-39416-4
StatePublished - 2014

Publication series

NameThe Families and Genera of Vascular Plants


  • INHS
  • Sesquiterpene Lactone
  • Longitudinal Slit
  • Pistillate Flower
  • Ryukyu Island
  • Staminate Flower


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