The objectives were to evaluate and to compare the effect of pure peptides from amaranth proteins on markers that promote atherosclerosis, in vitro. Amaranth pure peptides with potential anti-atherosclerotic effect, HGSEPFGPR, RPRYPWRYT and RDGPFPWPWYSH, were studied using lipopolysaccharide-induced THP-1 human macrophage-like cells. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) expression was reduced by peptides HGSEPFGPR (83%), RDGPFPWPWYSH (49%) and RPRYPWRYT (63%); while intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was reduced by peptides RDGPFPWPWYSH (27%) and RPRYPWRYT (39%); and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was reduced by 52% (HGSEPFGPR), 41% (RDGPFPWPWYSH) and 29% (RPRYPWRYT). Using confocal microscopy, peptide HGSEPFGPR reduced LOX-1, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 expression by 74%, 59% and 80%, respectively. RPRYPWRYT reduced LOX-1, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 expression by 48%, 49% and 71%, respectively. RPRYPWRYT reduced MCP-1 and TGF-β cellular protein expression (74% and 78%, respectively); 89% (IL-6 and IL-1α); 83% (IFN-γ); 87% and 58% (TNF-α and TNF-β). HGSEPFGPR showed significant reduction of 27%, 31%, 41%, 57%, and 61% for GRO-α, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1α, and RANTES, respectively. HGSEPFGPR showed better interactions with LOX-1 crystal structure than RPRYPWRYT. Amaranth pure peptides reduced the expression of proteins associated with LOX-1 signaling pathway, in vitro.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science