Proton-implanted red photonic crystal VCSELs with high quality output beam

Ansas M. Kasten, Hyungrae Cha, Levi Naden, Mary K. Hibbs-Brenner, Klein Johnson, Kent D. Choquette

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We have fabricated proton-implanted photonic crystal (PhC) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in the visible spectrum. The active region of the VCSELs is composed of multiple InGaAlP quantum wells resulting in an emission wavelength of 674 nm. A threshold current of 1.3 mA and single mode output power higher than 1 mW at room temperature have been achieved. The maximum continuous wave (CW) lasing temperature was found to be 55°C. The PhC VCSELs operate in a single fundamental mode with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) larger than 30 dB and show a constant beam divergence of 8 degree (full angle) for all levels of injection current and various ambient temperatures. We compare ion-implanted and photonic crystal VCSELs and demonstrate that the controllable refractive index guidance effect of the PhC results in a stable beam output which makes these red VCSELs interesting for imaging applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XIV
StatePublished - 2010
EventVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XIV - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 27 2010Jan 28 2010

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XIV
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • High-quality optical beam
  • Imaging applications
  • Photonic crystal VCSELs
  • Red VCSELs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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