Protocatechuic acid attenuates adipogenesis-induced inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by regulation of AMPK pathway

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Abstract

The effects of anthocyanins and concomitant compounds on adipogenesis-related disorders in adipose tissue remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of cyanidin-3-O-glycoside (C3G), protocatechuic acid (PCA) and ferulic acid (FA), on macrophage (MФ) factor-induced inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In adipocytes treated by LPS-conditioned media (CM) bearing MФ mediators, C3G, PCA and FA suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α: −29.0 to −66.2%; IL-6: −6.6 to −38.2%) and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion (adiponectin: 16.1–173.3%). C3G, PCA, and FA alleviated MФ factor-triggered oxidative stress through down-regulating mitochondrial superoxide and mitochondrial dysfunction by up-regulating mitochondrial respiration. Compared with C3G and FA, PCA tends to be more appropriate in modulating inflammation and mitochondrial dysregulation in LPS-CM-treated adipocytes. Further, treatment with PCA increased AMPK, LKB1, CAMKII, and Akt phosphorylation status while decreased activation in ACC, mTOR, p70S6k, and HSL. PCA holds the potential to alleviate inflammation and mitochondrial alteration under obese conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103972
JournalJournal of Functional Foods
Volume69
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2020

Keywords

  • Adipocyte
  • Cyanidin-3-glucoside
  • Inflammation
  • Mitochondria
  • Obesity
  • Protocatechuic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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