Deuterium Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra at 34 MHz (corresponding to a magnetic field strength of 5.2 T) have been obtained of a variety of protein-lipid systems containing specifically deuterated phospholipids. The following systems were investigated as a function of temperature: sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 188.8.131.52) complexed with 1-myristoyl-2-( 14,14,14-trideuteriomyristoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC-d3) or 1,2-bis( 16,16,16-trideuteriopalmitoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC-d6); human brain lipophilin complexed with DPPC-d6 or 1,2-bis(6,6-dideuteriopalmitoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC-6,6-d4); beef brain myelin proteolipid apoprotein (PLA) reconstituted with DMPC labeled as CD2 (or CD3) at one or more of positions 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 of the sn-2 chain. For purposes of comparison, spectra were also obtained for bilayers containing cholesterol (CHOL). The results show that proteins either disorder or have little effect on hydrocarbon chain order in membranes above the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition@r@ntemperature (TC) of the pure lipids. Cholesterol, however, causes a very large ordering of the hydrocarbon chains above Tc, but both cholesterol and protein prevent chain crystallization (by effectively disordering chain packing) immediately below Tc. No evidence for any ordered “boundary lipid” in association with protein was found above Tc, perhaps due to the rough nature of protein surfaces. Above Tc, exchange between free bilayer and protein associated lipid is fast on the time scale of the deuterium NMR experiment (≳103 s-1). We have also obtained proton-decoupled phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra at 60.7 MHz (corresponding to a magnetic field strength of 3.5 T) of DMPC, DMPC-AT-Pase, and DMPC-CHOL complexes. The results indicate that ATPase and CHOL cause small decreases in 31P chemical shielding anisotropics but that in addition ATPase causes a four- to fivefold increase in 31P spin-lattice and Carr-Purcell spin-spin relaxation rates, suggesting the possibility of polar group protein-lipid interaction leading to increased correlation times in the region of the lipid phosphate head group.
ASJC Scopus subject areas