Circadian clocks comprise a cyclic series of dynamic cellular states, characterized by the changing availability of substrates that alter clock time when activated. To determine whether circadian clocks, like the cell cycle, exhibit regulation by key phosphorylation events, we examined endogenous kinase regulation of timekeeping in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Short-term inhibition of PKG-II but not PKG-Iβ using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides delayed rhythms of electrical activity and Bmal1 mRNA. Phase resetting was rapid and dynamic; inhibition of PKG-II forced repetition of the last 3.5 hr of the cycle. Chronic inhibition of PKG-II disrupted electrical activity rhythms and tonically increased Bmal1 mRNA. PKG-II-like immunoreactivity was detected after coimmunoprecipitation with CLOCK, and CLOCK was phosphorylated in the presence of active PKG-II. PKG-II activation may define a critical control point for temporal progression into the daytime domain by acting on the positive arm of the transcriptional/translational feedback loop.
ASJC Scopus subject areas