Protein-energy malnutrition delays small-intestinal recovery in neonatal pigs infected with rotavirus

Ruurd T. Zijlstra, Sharon M Donovan, Jack Odle, Howard B. Gelberg, Bryon W. Petschow, H Rex Gaskins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Infectious diarrheal diseases and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) are major causes of child morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the present study, PEM was superimposed on rotavirus infection in neonatal pigs to simulate chronic small intestinal stress in malnourished infants with viral gastroenteritis. Two-day-old cesarean-derived pigs (n = 39) were allotted to three treatment groups: 1) noninfected, full-fed; 2) infected, full-fed; and 3) infected, malnourished. Two days postinfection, severe diarrhea and weight loss (11%) were accompanied by reductions in villus height (60%) and lactase activity (78%) and increased crypt depth (32%) in infected full-fed compared with noninfected pigs (P < 0.05). Malnutrition blunted (P < 0.05) increases in crypt depth elicited by rotavirus. By 9 d postinfection, body weight was 59% less, villus height and lactase activity remained lower (50%), and crypt depth remained greater (62%) in infected full-fed compared with noninfected pigs (P < 0.05). However, diarrhea began to clear in infected full-fed, but not in infected malnourished pigs. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- I) was reduced 68% and crypt depth was reduced 19% in infected-malnourished compared with infected full-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Sixteen days postinfection, full-fed pigs had recovered from rotaviral infection; however, in infected- malnourished pigs, diarrhea and growth stasis persisted, and plasma IGF-I, villus height and alkaline phosphatase activity remained reduced compared with infected full-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Overall, PEM prolonged diarrhea and delayed small-intestinal recovery, indicating that nutritional status during diarrhea is essential for recovery from rotaviral enteritis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1118-1127
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume127
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 20 1997

Keywords

  • Malnutrition
  • Neonate
  • Pigs
  • Rotavirus
  • Small intestine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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