Proteases drive the life cycle of all proteins, ensuring the transportation and activation of newly minted, would-be proteins into their functional form while recycling spent or unneeded proteins. Far from their image as engines of protein digestion, proteases play fundamental roles in basic physiology and regulation at multiple levels of systems biology. Proteases are intimately associated with disease and modulation of proteolytic activity is the presumed target for successful therapeutics. “Proteases: Pivot Points in Functional Proteomics” examines the crucial roles of proteolysis across a wide range of physiological processes and diseases. The existing and potential impacts of proteolysis-related activity on drug and biomarker development are presented in detail. All told the decisive roles of proteases in four major categories comprising 23 separate subcategories are addressed. Within this construct, 15 sets of subject-specific, tabulated data are presented that include identification of proteases, protease inhibitors, substrates, and their actions. Said data are derived from and confirmed by over 300 references. Cross comparison of datasets indicates that proteases, their inhibitors/promoters and substrates intersect over a range of physiological processes and diseases, both chronic and pathogenic. Indeed, “Proteases: Pivot Points …” closes by dramatizing this very point through association of (pro)Thrombin and Fibrin(ogen) with: hemostasis, innate immunity, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, cancer, neurodegeneration, and bacterial self-defense.