Proposal for a loophole-free Bell inequality experiment

Paul G. Kwiat, Philippe H. Eberhard, Aephraim M. Steinberg, Raymond Y. Chiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The nonlocality inherent in quantum mechanics has been tested experimentally, but the nonlocal interpretation of all the relevant experiments can be challenged. All past tests of Bell's inequalities have required supplementary assumptions, without which the experimental results satisfy the inequalities, in agreement with the notion of local realism. There are basically three loopholes that need to be closed; neither the cascade sources nor the parametric down-conversion sources of correlation photons used to date are capable of closing all of them, even if the detectors used had been 100% efficient. We propose a two-crystal down-conversion source, relying on type-II collinear phase matching, which should permit a violation of Bell's inequalities without the need for supplementary assumptions. As the source can produce a true singletlike state, it is also relevant for quantum cryptographic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3209-3220
Number of pages12
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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