Programmed introduction to psychology versus text-book style summary of the same lesson

Marianne Roderick, Richard C. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The 1st 4 sets of the Holland-Skinner program or a summary of the material contained in the program was given to 85 undergraduates and 116 high school seniors. Those who completed the program scored higher on the achievement test than those who studied the summary. The advantage of the program was greatest (1) with high school rather than college students, (2) on the delayed rather than the immediate achievement test, and (3) on short-answer rather than multiple-choice test items. Among college undergraduates, for whom the program was designed, the results failed to show better achievement for the program than for the summary, but the program took 4 times longer to complete. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-387
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number6 PART 1
StatePublished - Dec 1968
Externally publishedYes


  • college students
  • programed instruction vs. textbook style summary, psychology achievement, high school seniors &

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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