Production of uniformly sized serum albumin and dextrose microbubbles

Michael J. Borrelli, William D. O'Brien, Laura J. Bernock, Heather R. Williams, Eric Hamilton, Jonah Wu, Michael L. Oelze, William C. Culp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 to 7 μm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5 °C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-208
Number of pages11
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Cavitation
  • Contrast agent
  • Microbubble
  • Production
  • Sonication
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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