Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

Brajendra K. Sharma, Bryan R. Moser, Karl E. Vermillion, Kenneth M. Doll, Nandakishore Rajagopalan

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture with average structure consisting of saturated aliphatic paraffinic hydrogens (96.8%), aliphatic olefinic hydrogens (2.6%) and aromatic hydrogens (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 190-290 C and #2 diesel 290-340 C). Characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon mixture was accomplished with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography, and simulated distillation. No oxygenated species such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ethers, ketones, or alcohols were detected. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications after addition of antioxidants with the exception of density (802 kg/m3). Notably, the derived cetane number (73.4) and lubricity (198 μm, 60 C, ASTM D6890) represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Other fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40 C) of 2.96 mm2/s, cloud point of 4.7 C, flash point of 81.5 C, and energy content of 46.16 MJ/kg. In summary, liquid hydrocarbons with appropriate boiling range produced from pyrolysis of waste plastic appear suitable as blend components for conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages79-90
Number of pages12
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Volume122
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Fingerprint

Alternative fuels
Petroleum
Diesel fuels
Hydrogen
Pyrolysis
Plastics
Liquids
Crude oil
Hydrocarbons
Distillation
Boiling liquids
Ethers
Size exclusion chromatography
Polyethylene
Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes
Gas chromatography
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy
Alcohols

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Diesel
  • Fuel
  • High-density polyethylene
  • Plastic
  • Pyrolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags. / Sharma, Brajendra K.; Moser, Bryan R.; Vermillion, Karl E.; Doll, Kenneth M.; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore.

In: Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 122, 06.2014, p. 79-90.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

@article{1ce3e670e1a0426e8a364c4389d6a397,
title = "Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags",
abstract = "Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture with average structure consisting of saturated aliphatic paraffinic hydrogens (96.8%), aliphatic olefinic hydrogens (2.6%) and aromatic hydrogens (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 190-290 C and #2 diesel 290-340 C). Characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon mixture was accomplished with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography, and simulated distillation. No oxygenated species such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ethers, ketones, or alcohols were detected. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications after addition of antioxidants with the exception of density (802 kg/m3). Notably, the derived cetane number (73.4) and lubricity (198 μm, 60 C, ASTM D6890) represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Other fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40 C) of 2.96 mm2/s, cloud point of 4.7 C, flash point of 81.5 C, and energy content of 46.16 MJ/kg. In summary, liquid hydrocarbons with appropriate boiling range produced from pyrolysis of waste plastic appear suitable as blend components for conventional petroleum diesel fuel.",
keywords = "Biodiesel, Diesel, Fuel, High-density polyethylene, Plastic, Pyrolysis",
author = "Sharma, {Brajendra K.} and Moser, {Bryan R.} and Vermillion, {Karl E.} and Doll, {Kenneth M.} and Nandakishore Rajagopalan",
year = "2014",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.01.019",
volume = "122",
pages = "79--90",
journal = "Fuel Processing Technology",
issn = "0378-3820",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

AU - Sharma,Brajendra K.

AU - Moser,Bryan R.

AU - Vermillion,Karl E.

AU - Doll,Kenneth M.

AU - Rajagopalan,Nandakishore

PY - 2014/6

Y1 - 2014/6

N2 - Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture with average structure consisting of saturated aliphatic paraffinic hydrogens (96.8%), aliphatic olefinic hydrogens (2.6%) and aromatic hydrogens (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 190-290 C and #2 diesel 290-340 C). Characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon mixture was accomplished with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography, and simulated distillation. No oxygenated species such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ethers, ketones, or alcohols were detected. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications after addition of antioxidants with the exception of density (802 kg/m3). Notably, the derived cetane number (73.4) and lubricity (198 μm, 60 C, ASTM D6890) represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Other fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40 C) of 2.96 mm2/s, cloud point of 4.7 C, flash point of 81.5 C, and energy content of 46.16 MJ/kg. In summary, liquid hydrocarbons with appropriate boiling range produced from pyrolysis of waste plastic appear suitable as blend components for conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

AB - Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture with average structure consisting of saturated aliphatic paraffinic hydrogens (96.8%), aliphatic olefinic hydrogens (2.6%) and aromatic hydrogens (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 190-290 C and #2 diesel 290-340 C). Characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon mixture was accomplished with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography, and simulated distillation. No oxygenated species such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ethers, ketones, or alcohols were detected. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications after addition of antioxidants with the exception of density (802 kg/m3). Notably, the derived cetane number (73.4) and lubricity (198 μm, 60 C, ASTM D6890) represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Other fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40 C) of 2.96 mm2/s, cloud point of 4.7 C, flash point of 81.5 C, and energy content of 46.16 MJ/kg. In summary, liquid hydrocarbons with appropriate boiling range produced from pyrolysis of waste plastic appear suitable as blend components for conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

KW - Biodiesel

KW - Diesel

KW - Fuel

KW - High-density polyethylene

KW - Plastic

KW - Pyrolysis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84893932351&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84893932351&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.01.019

DO - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.01.019

M3 - Article

VL - 122

SP - 79

EP - 90

JO - Fuel Processing Technology

T2 - Fuel Processing Technology

JF - Fuel Processing Technology

SN - 0378-3820

ER -