Probabilistic modeling and fragility assessment of limestone wall tie connections subjected to wind loads

K. Samara, Mingyu Sun, Eun Jeong Cha, J. LaFave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Public safety has been the main objective of conventional design codes and standards, which provide a good threshold for the performance of structures. However, public safety is not the only objective that can drive the design decisions of building owners and their architectural/engineering design professionals. Minimization of total economic losses in a particular scenario event or over a period of time can also be a major objective for the design and retrofit decisions of building owners. Such economic losses accrue from various cost components that can be caused by damage to structural and/or nonstructural components of buildings, so the uncertainties associated with these damages should be understood. This paper analyzes a set of experimental data for the capacity of limestone wall tie connections in tension to develop probabilistic models. Dependency of tie connection behavior on four testing pre-conditions is also examined. The probabilistic models are then used to illustrate development of fragility curves for the tie connections, by implementing them in limestone veneer façades that are characteristic of those on mid-rise buildings located in the wind environment of Chicago, Illinois.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100884
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
StatePublished - Nov 2019


  • Fragility
  • Probabilistic modeling
  • Wall ties
  • Winds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Probabilistic modeling and fragility assessment of limestone wall tie connections subjected to wind loads'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this