Prevalence of terrapene herpesvirus 1 in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois, USA

Lauren P. Kane, Matthew C Allender, Grace Archer, Elena Dzhaman, John Pauley, A. Russell Moore, Marilyn Sue O'Hara, Rebecca Lee Smith, John Byrd, Christopher A Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Diseases affecting the upper respiratory tract, such as herpesviruses, are well described in captive chelonians worldwide, but their importance in free-ranging populations is less well known. To characterize the disease epidemiology of terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), 409 free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois, US were tested for TerHV1 in 2013 and 2014 using TaqMan quantitative PCR. Whole blood and swabs of the oral mucosa were collected from 365 adults (154 females, 195 males, 16 unknown sex) and 44 juveniles. The prevalence of detection was 31.3% (n=128). Turtles were more likely to be positive for TerHV1 in July (50%; n=67) compared to September (38%; n=44) and May (11%; n=17). Turtles sampled in 2014 had a significantly higher prevalence (50%; n=98) than in 2013 (14%; n=30). In a multivariate model, only season, year, and the interaction between season and year were maintained; turtles were most likely to be positive in July (odds ratio: 30.5) and September (odds ratio: 41.8) 2014 compared to May 2013. The prevalence was not statistically different by state of collection, sex, or age class. Packed cell volume (25.5%) and total solids (4.8 mg/dL) in positive turtles were significantly higher than in negative turtles (23.0%; 4.3 mg/ dL). Positive turtles had increased eosinophil concentrations, fewer lymphocytes, and fewer monocytes. No clinical sign was associated with detection of herpesvirus. Widespread DNA evidence of TerHV1 infection was detected in eastern box turtles, and knowledge of the epidemiology of this virus may aid in management of free-ranging and captive individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-295
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of wildlife diseases
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017

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turtle
turtles
odds ratio
epidemiology
digestive tract mucosa
gender
total solids
eosinophils
respiratory system
monocytes
hematocrit
age structure
Terrapene carolina
Terrapene
quantitative polymerase chain reaction
lymphocytes
age class
viruses
virus
blood

Keywords

  • Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Herpesvirus
  • Quantitative PCR
  • Terrapene carolina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Prevalence of terrapene herpesvirus 1 in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois, USA. / Kane, Lauren P.; Allender, Matthew C; Archer, Grace; Dzhaman, Elena; Pauley, John; Moore, A. Russell; O'Hara, Marilyn Sue; Smith, Rebecca Lee; Byrd, John; Phillips, Christopher A.

In: Journal of wildlife diseases, Vol. 53, No. 2, 01.04.2017, p. 285-295.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kane, Lauren P. ; Allender, Matthew C ; Archer, Grace ; Dzhaman, Elena ; Pauley, John ; Moore, A. Russell ; O'Hara, Marilyn Sue ; Smith, Rebecca Lee ; Byrd, John ; Phillips, Christopher A. / Prevalence of terrapene herpesvirus 1 in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois, USA. In: Journal of wildlife diseases. 2017 ; Vol. 53, No. 2. pp. 285-295.
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abstract = "Diseases affecting the upper respiratory tract, such as herpesviruses, are well described in captive chelonians worldwide, but their importance in free-ranging populations is less well known. To characterize the disease epidemiology of terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), 409 free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Tennessee and Illinois, US were tested for TerHV1 in 2013 and 2014 using TaqMan quantitative PCR. Whole blood and swabs of the oral mucosa were collected from 365 adults (154 females, 195 males, 16 unknown sex) and 44 juveniles. The prevalence of detection was 31.3{\%} (n=128). Turtles were more likely to be positive for TerHV1 in July (50{\%}; n=67) compared to September (38{\%}; n=44) and May (11{\%}; n=17). Turtles sampled in 2014 had a significantly higher prevalence (50{\%}; n=98) than in 2013 (14{\%}; n=30). In a multivariate model, only season, year, and the interaction between season and year were maintained; turtles were most likely to be positive in July (odds ratio: 30.5) and September (odds ratio: 41.8) 2014 compared to May 2013. The prevalence was not statistically different by state of collection, sex, or age class. Packed cell volume (25.5{\%}) and total solids (4.8 mg/dL) in positive turtles were significantly higher than in negative turtles (23.0{\%}; 4.3 mg/ dL). Positive turtles had increased eosinophil concentrations, fewer lymphocytes, and fewer monocytes. No clinical sign was associated with detection of herpesvirus. Widespread DNA evidence of TerHV1 infection was detected in eastern box turtles, and knowledge of the epidemiology of this virus may aid in management of free-ranging and captive individuals.",
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