Prevalence, economic contribution, and determinants of trees on farms across Sub-Saharan Africa

Daniel C. Miller, Juan Carlos Muñoz-Mora, Luc Christiaensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Trees on farms are often overlooked in agricultural and natural resource research and policy in Sub-Saharan Africa. This article addresses this gap using data from the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture in five countries: Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Trees on farms are widespread. On average, almost a third of rural smallholders grow trees. They account for an average of 17% of total annual gross income for tree-growing households and 6% for all rural households. Gender, land and labor endowments, and especially forest proximity and national context are key determinants of on-farm tree adoption and management. These new, national-scale insights on the prevalence, economic contribution and determinants of trees on farms in Africa lay the basis for exploring the interaction of agriculture, on-farm tree cultivation, and forestry to gain a more complete picture of the dynamics of rural livelihoods across the continent and beyond.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-61
Number of pages15
JournalForest Policy and Economics
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • Africa
  • Agroforestry
  • Climate smart agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Landscape approaches
  • Livelihoods
  • Trees on farms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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