Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale

Jaclyn D. Houston-Kolnik, Nathan R. Todd, Midge Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1259-1281
Number of pages23
JournalViolence Against Women
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016


  • gender
  • human trafficking
  • scale validation
  • sex trafficking
  • sexual violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Law


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