Preliminary evidence of key factors in successful flipping: predicting positive student experiences in flipped classrooms

Erkko Sointu, Mareena Hyypiä, Matthew C. Lambert, Laura Hirsto, Markku Saarelainen, Teemu Valtonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Flipped classrooms have become widely adopted in educational settings (e.g., in higher education) worldwide. However, there is a need for more precise understanding of the ingredients for student satisfaction in a flipped setting. The aim of this paper was to investigate university students’ experiences of the factors that create a successful flipped course. Ten measures were used to investigate the hypothesized factors affecting satisfaction, which were chosen based on the results from previous flipped classroom studies and higher educational research. These measures were grouped into three dimensions: (1) pedagogical (five measures), (2) social (three measures), and (3) technological (two measures). Exploratory factor analysis was run to analyze the adequacy of the instruments. Results revealed that the factor structure was as expected and that the instruments measuring all ten factors of teaching and learning in a flipped classroom were adequate. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis was used to formally operationalize the hypothesized latent constructs, and to build a structural equation model for predicting the student satisfaction of a flipped classroom. In the end, seven factors were found to predict student satisfaction with flipped courses. The highest predictor was guidance from the dimension of pedagogy, and the second-best predictor was experienced teaching for understanding. The results, limitations, and conclusion are discussed in terms of key issues and the development of a flipped classroom pedagogical design for higher education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)503-520
Number of pages18
JournalHigher Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Flipped classroom
  • Higher education
  • Learning experience
  • Quantitative research methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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