Preliminary assessment of safety and effectiveness in humans of ProBiora3™ a probiotic mouthwash

R. T. Zahradnik, I. Magnusson, C. Walker, E. McDonell, C. H. Hillman, J. D. Hillman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To conduct a pilot human clinical trial to assess the safety and to test the ability of a probiotic mouthwash, ProBiora3, to affect the levels of Streptococcus mutans and certain known periodontal pathogens in the mouth when administered twice daily over a period of 4 weeks. Methods and Results: The mouthwash contained three specific strains of naturally occurring oral bacteria and was tested at two dose levels: 106 and 108 colony forming units each of Strep. oralis strain KJ3sm, Strep. uberis strain KJ2sm, and the pontaneous lactic acid-deficient variant of Strep. rattus, strain H145.ubstantial decreases in the levels of the marker bacteria were observed. No safety issues were noted with the twice daily application of this mouthwash.Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects and the use of young, orally healthy adults, along with the inherent variability in the microbiological measurements, the probiotic mouthwash was able to ubstantially affect the levels of dental pathogens in saliva and periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results of this pilot human study suggest that the probiotic mouthwash product may be safe for daily use as an aid in maintaining both dental and periodontal health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)682-690
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • Dental caries
  • Periodontal disease
  • Probiotic
  • Viridans streptococci

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


Dive into the research topics of 'Preliminary assessment of safety and effectiveness in humans of ProBiora3™ a probiotic mouthwash'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this