Prejudice toward immigrants to Spain and Israel: An integrated threat theory analysis

Walter G. Stephan, Oscar Ybarra, Carmen Martínez Martínez, Joseph Schwarzwald, Michal Tur-Kaspa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An integrated threat theory composed of four variables was used to predict attitudes toward immigrant groups in Spain and Israel. The four threats are symbolic threats based on value differences between groups; realistic threats to the power, resources, and well-being of the in-group; anxiety concerning social interaction with out-group members; and feelings of threat arising from negative stereotypes of the out-group. All four threats were significant predictors of attitudes toward one or more of the immigrant groups. It was predicted, and found, that intergroup anxiety and negative stereotypes were more powerful and consistent predictors of prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants than were realistic threats or symbolic threats. The implications of the theory for the causes and reduction of prejudice were discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-576
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology


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