Prediction of surface roughness during hard turning of AISI 4340 steel (69 HRC)

Anupam Agrawal, Saurav Goel, Waleed Bin Rashid, Mark Price

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, 39 sets of hard turning (HT) experimental trials were performed on a Mori-Seiki SL-25Y (4-axis) computer numerical controlled (CNC) lathe to study the effect of cutting parameters in influencing the machined surface roughness. In all the trials, AISI 4340 steel workpiece (hardened up to 69 HRC) was machined with a commercially available CBN insert (Warren Tooling Limited, UK) under dry conditions. The surface topography of the machined samples was examined by using a white light interferometer and a reconfirmation of measurement was done using a Form Talysurf. The machining outcome was used as an input to develop various regression models to predict the average machined surface roughness on this material. Three regression models - Multiple regression, Random forest, and Quantile regression were applied to the experimental outcomes. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is the first to apply random forest or quantile regression techniques to the machining domain. The performance of these models was compared to ascertain how feed, depth of cut, and spindle speed affect surface roughness and finally to obtain a mathematical equation correlating these variables. It was concluded that the random forest regression model is a superior choice over multiple regression models for prediction of surface roughness during machining of AISI 4340 steel (69 HRC).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-286
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Soft Computing
StatePublished - May 2015


  • Hard turning
  • Quantile regression
  • Random forest regression
  • Regression modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software


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