Predicting Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) from the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ)

S. Wheelwright, S. Baron-Cohen, N. Goldenfeld, J. Delaney, D. Fine, R. Smith, L. Weil, A. Wakabayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Empathizing is a specific component of social cognition. Empathizing is also specifically impaired in autism spectrum condition (ASC). These are two dimensions, measurable using the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). ASC also involves strong systemizing, a dimension measured using the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). The present study examined the relationship between the EQ, AQ and SQ. The EQ and SQ have been used previously to test for sex differences in 5 'brain types' (Types S, E, B and extremes of Type S or E). Finally, people with ASC have been conceptualized as an extreme of the male brain. Method: We revised the SQ to avoid a traditionalist bias, thus producing the SQ-Revised (SQ-R). AQ and EQ were not modified. All 3 were administered online. Sample: Students (723 males, 1038 females) were compared to a group of adults with ASC group (69 males, 56 females). Aims: (1) To report scores from the SQ-R. (2) To test for SQ-R differences among students in the sciences vs. humanities. (3) To test if AQ can be predicted from EQ and SQ-R scores. (4) To test for sex differences on each of these in a typical sample, and for the absence of a sex difference in a sample with ASC if both males and females with ASC are hyper-masculinized. (5) To report percentages of males, females and people with an ASC who show each brain type. Results: AQ score was successfully predicted from EQ and SQ-R scores. In the typical group, males scored significantly higher than females on the AQ and SQ-R, and lower on the EQ. The ASC group scored higher than sex-matched controls on the SQ-R, and showed no sex differences on any of the 3 measures. More than twice as many typical males as females were Type S, and more than twice as many typical females as males were Type E. The majority of adults with ASC were Extreme Type S, compared to 5% of typical males and 0.9% of typical females. The EQ had a weak negative correlation with the SQ-R. Discussion: Empathizing is largely but not completely independent of systemizing. The weak but significant negative correlation may indicate a trade-off between them. ASC involves impaired empathizing alongside intact or superior systemizing. Future work should investigate the biological basis of these dimensions, and the small trade-off between them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-56
Number of pages10
JournalBrain Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 24 2006


  • Autism Spectrum Quotient
  • Empathizing
  • Systemizing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology


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