Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy and soy-based products. Previously, we found that genistein adversely affected estradiol levels and follicle growth in vitro. Proper hormone production and follicle growth are key regulators of normal fertility. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein adversely affects female fertility and pregnancy outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we dosed sexually mature female CD-1 mice (35 days) with 0, 300, 500, or 1000 ppm genistein for 30, 60, 150, and 240 days. At the end of the dosing periods, we measured mating rate, pregnancy rate, fertility rate, gestation time, parturition time, pup mortality, litter size, average pup weight, and estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that chronic, preconception exposure to genistein affects gestation time, parturition time, litter size, pup weight, and pup mortality. Additionally, genistein exposure for 240 days appears to have a protective effect on fertility rate, but does not affect hormone levels in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-180
Number of pages7
JournalReproductive Toxicology
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • Fertility
  • Genistein
  • Hormones
  • Preconception exposure
  • Pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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