Potential lymphangiogenesis therapies: Learning from current antiangiogenesis therapies—A review

Michael Yamakawa, Susan J. Doh, Samuel M. Santosa, Mario Montana, Ellen C. Qin, Hyunjoon Kong, Kyu Yeon Han, Charles Yu, Mark I. Rosenblatt, Andrius Kazlauskas, Jin Hong Chang, Dimitri T. Azar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In recent years, lymphangiogenesis, the process of lymphatic vessel formation from existing lymph vessels, has been demonstrated to have a significant role in diverse pathologies, including cancer metastasis, organ graft rejection, and lymphedema. Our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis has advanced on the heels of studies demonstrating vascular endothelial growth factor C as a central pro-lymphangiogenic regulator and others identifying multiple lymphatic endothelial biomarkers. Despite these breakthroughs and a growing appreciation of the signaling events that govern the lymphangiogenic process, there are no FDA-approved drugs that target lymphangiogenesis. In this review, we reflect on the lessons available from the development of antiangiogenic therapies (26 FDA-approved drugs to date), review current lymphangiogenesis research including nanotechnology in therapeutic drug delivery and imaging, and discuss molecules in the lymphangiogenic pathway that are promising therapeutic targets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1769-1798
Number of pages30
JournalMedicinal Research Reviews
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • angiogenesis
  • lymphangiogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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