Possible Alternative Transformation Tougheners to Zirconia: Crystallographic Aspects

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Several new potential alternative transformation tougheners to zirconia have been identified on the basis of crystallographic considerations and experimental observations. Examples can be found in ceramics, minerals, and components of glass and of cement. The displacive transformations exhibit martensitic characteristics of dusting or self‐disintegration, and a critical particle size effect operates. Large positive volume changes (< 12%) accompany the transformations on cooling, in the lanthanide sesquioxides (Ln2O3), dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4), and nickel sulfide (NiS). High Ms temperatures (<2000°C) in the Ln2O3 compounds also suggest the possibility of high‐temperature transformation toughening. Detrimental negative volume changes are seen in composites with enstatite (MgO · SiO2) and the lanthanide borates (LnBO3). The relative effects of volume change, X‐ray unit‐cell shape change, and the (martensitic) macroscopic shape change on the mechanical properties of a composite ceramic can thus be investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1021-1030
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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