First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3’ untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus.
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