Polydimethylsiloxane-Silane Synergy enables Dropwise Condensation of Low Surface Tension Liquids

Kazi Fazle Rabbi, Jin Yao Ho, Xiao Yan, Jingcheng Ma, Muhammad Jahidul Hoque, Soumyadip Sett, Nenad Miljkovic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite decades of research on promoting the dropwise condensation of steam, achieving dropwise condensation of low surface tension liquids remains a challenge. The few coatings reported to promote dropwise condensation of low surface tension liquids either require complex fabrication methods, are substrate dependent or have poor scalability. Here, the rational development of a coating, which is applicable to all conventionally used condenser metals, is presented by combining a low contact angle hysteresis polydimethylsiloxane with a low surface energy silane using atmospheric vapor phase deposition. The siloxane-silane coating enables the dropwise condensation of fluids with surface tensions as low as 15 mN m−1 in pure vapor conditions. This siloxane-silane coating enables a 274%, 347%, and 636% heat transfer enhancement during ethanol, hexane, and pentane condensation, respectively, when compared to filmwise condensation on the same un-coated surfaces. Furthermore, this coating exhibits 15 days of steady dropwise condensation with no apparent signs of coating degradation. This study not only demonstrates the possibility of achieving stable dropwise condensation of low surface tension fluids on scalable, structure-less surfaces, it also develops design principles for creating facile, substrate-independent, durable, and scalable omniphobic coatings for a plethora of applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2112837
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number19
StatePublished - May 9 2022


  • condensation
  • durable
  • heat transfer
  • low-surface-tension
  • scalable
  • surface-functionalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


Dive into the research topics of 'Polydimethylsiloxane-Silane Synergy enables Dropwise Condensation of Low Surface Tension Liquids'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this