Using historic data sets, we quantified the degree to which global change over 120 years disrupted plant-pollinator interactions in a temperate forest understory community in Illinois, USA. We found degradation of interaction network structure and function and extirpation of 50% of bee species. Network changes can be attributed to shifts in forb and bee phenologies resulting in temporal mismatches, nonrandom species extinctions, and loss of spatial co-occurrences between extant species in modified landscapes. Quantity and quality of pollination services have declined through time. The historic network showed flexibility in response to disturbance; however, our data suggest that networks will be less resilient to future changes.
Burkel, L. A., Marlin, J. C., & Knight, T. M. (2013). Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence and function. Science, 339(6127), 1611--1615. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1232728