Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence and function

L. A. Burkel, John C. Marlin, T. M. Knight

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Using historic data sets, we quantified the degree to which global change over 120 years disrupted plant-pollinator interactions in a temperate forest understory community in Illinois, USA. We found degradation of interaction network structure and function and extirpation of 50% of bee species. Network changes can be attributed to shifts in forb and bee phenologies resulting in temporal mismatches, nonrandom species extinctions, and loss of spatial co-occurrences between extant species in modified landscapes. Quantity and quality of pollination services have declined through time. The historic network showed flexibility in response to disturbance; however, our data suggest that networks will be less resilient to future changes.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1611--1615
Issue number6127
StatePublished - 2013


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